• Book Name: Surveying Engineering and Instruments by Valeria Shank
  • Author: Valeria Shank
  • Pages: 108
  • Size: 5 MB
surveying engineering and instruments pdf free download

Surveying Engineering and Instruments Pdf Free Download

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law. An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details.

 

Furthermore, as alluded to above, a particular type of surveying known as “land surveying” (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.

Surveying Engineering and Instruments Pdf Free Download

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago). It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. 

 

Surveying techniques have existed throughout much of recorded history. In ancient Egypt, when the Nile River overflowed its banks and washed out farm boundaries, boundaries were re-established by a rope stretcher, or surveyor, through the application of simple geometry. The nearly perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians’ command of surveying.

 The Egyptian land register (3000 BC).

 A recent reassessment of Stonehenge (c. 2500 BC) indicates that the monument was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry.

 The Groma surveying instrument originated in Mesopotamia (early 1st millennium BC).

 Under the Romans, land surveyors were established as a profession, and they established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands (300 AD).

 The rise of the Caliphate led to extensive surveying throughout the Arab Empire. Arabic surveyors invented a variety of specialized instruments for surveying, including: o Instruments for accurate leveling: A wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a reed level. o A rotating alhidade, used for accurate alignment. o A surveying astrolabe, used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction.

 In England, The Domesday Book by William the Conqueror (1086) o covered all England o contained names of the land owners, area, land quality, and specific information of the area’s content and inhabitants. o did not include maps showing exact locations In the 18th century in Europe triangulation was used to build a hierarchy of networks to allow point positioning within a country. Highest in the hierarchy were triangulation networks. These were densified into networks of traverses (polygons), into which local mapping surveying measurements, usually with measuring tape, corner prism and the familiar red and white poles, are tied. For example, in the late 1780s, a team from the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, originally under General William Roy began the Principal Triangulation of Britain using the specially built Ramsden theodolite. Large scale surveys are known as geodetic surveys.

 Continental Europe’s Cadastre was created in 1808 o founded by Napoleon I (Bonaparte) o contained numbers of the parcels of land (or just land), land usage, names etc., and value of the land o 100 million parcels of land, triangle survey, measurable survey, map scale: 1:2500 and 1:1250

Surveying engineering and instruments pdf free download.

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