- Book Name: Microsoft Step by Step HTML5
- Author: Faithe Wempen
- Pages: 417
- Size: 22 MB
Learn HTML5 Step by Step Pdf
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the underlying markup language of the World Wide Web. It’s the common thread that ties together virtually every Web site, from largescale corporate sites such as Microsoft’s to single-page classroom projects at the local grade school. Don’t let the phrase “markup language” intimidate you. A markup language annotates or “marks up” plain text, letting a browser know how to format that text so it looks good on a Web page. It’s easy to get started—in fact, you can create a simple Web page in just a few minutes. While full-featured What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) tools exist that can help speed up the process of writing Web pages, all you really need is an ordinary text-editing program such as Microsoft Notepad. You don’t need special software or extensive training.
Learn HTML5 Step by Step Pdf
In this introduction, you’ll learn some basics about HTML. You’ll find out how they turn plain text into attractive formatting, how they incorporate graphics and hyperlinks, and how anyone can create Web content in virtually any program that edits text. This introduction explains what cascading style sheets (CSS) are, and how they make formatting consistent across large Web sites. You’ll also discover the differences between HTML4, XHTML, and HTML5, so you can make the important decision about which version of HTML you want your code to conform to. Finally, you’ll learn about the conventions used in this book for pointing out special helps like notes, tips, cautions, and references to the data files.
What Is HTML?
In simple terms, a Web page (or HTML document) is a plain text file that has been encoded using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) so that it appears nicely formatted in a Web browser. Here’s what HTML means, word-by-word:
Hypertext Text that you click to jump from document to document. This is a reference to the ability of Web pages to link to one another.
Markup Tags that apply layout and formatting conventions to plain text. Literally, the plain text is “marked up” with the tags.
Language A reference to the fact that HTML is considered a programming language.
Tip: When people think of computer programming, they usually think of writing a compiled program. A compiled programming language runs the human-readable programming code through a utility that converts it to an executable file (usually with an .exe or .com extension), which is then distributed to users. In contrast, HTML is an interpreted programming language. That means the program is distributed in human-readable format to users, and the program in which it is opened takes care of running it. The HTML code for Web pages resides in files. Each time your Web browser opens a Web page, it processes the HTML code within the file.
HTML 5 Step by Step PDF Download
Understanding HTML Tags: The code within an HTML file consists of text surrounded by tags. These tags indicate where the formatting should be applied, how the layout should appear, what pictures should be placed in certain locations, and more.
For example, suppose you wanted a certain word to be italicized, like this: Everything is on sale. In HTML, there’s no Italics button to click, like there is in a word-processing program. Therefore, you have to “tag” the word that you want to be italicized. The code to turn on italics is , and the code to turn italics off is . Your HTML code would look something like this: Everything is on sale. That’s an example of a two-sided tag, which encloses text between opening and closing tags, in this case and . Note the forward slash in the closing tag (). That slash differentiates an opening tag from a closing tag. With a two-sided tag, there is always a corresponding closing tag for every opening tag.
To understand how this system of tagging came about, you need to know that back in the olden days of the Internet, nearly everyone connected to it by using a dial-up modem, at speeds ranging from 2400 bps to 28.8 Kbps. That’s really slow. Text files transfer much faster than binary files, so for any type of information-sharing system to be popular, it had to be text-based. Otherwise, people would doze off while waiting for a page to load.
People designing Web pages also wanted their pages to be attractive. They couldn’t just format pages in a word processor, though, because every word processor handled formatting differently, and it was impossible to know which one a visitor to a site might be using. Word processing files are also much larger than plain text files. The Web’s creators developed an elegant solution. Instead of sending the formatted pages over the Internet, they created an application—a Web browser—that could interpret plain-text code (HTML tags) as formatting instructions. The text could be sent quickly and efficiently in plain-text format, and then be processed and displayed attractively and graphically on the local PC. HTML worked great all by itself for all kinds of text formatting, but some Web designers wanted to include graphics on their pages.
To accommodate this, the tag was created, which designers use to refer to a graphic stored on a server. When the Web browser gets to that tag, it requests that the image file be downloaded from the server and displayed on the page. (You’ll learn how to insert images in Chapter 9, “Displaying Graphics.”) The tag is different in several ways from the tag. It is one-sided, meaning it does not have a closing tag, and it takes attributes. An attribute is text within the tag that contains information about how the tag should behave. For example, for an tag, you have to specify a source, abbreviated src. Here’s an example: This tag uses the src= attribute, and specifies that the file tree.gif be displayed. Many tags accept attributes, either optional or required. You’ll see many examples throughout the exercises in this book. With HTML, you can also create hyperlinks from one page to another. When a visitor to a Web site clicks a hyperlink, the Web browser loads the referenced page or jumps to a marked section (a “bookmark”) within the same page. You will learn to create hyperlinks in Chapter 5, “Creating Hyperlinks and Anchors.”
There’s a lot more to HTML, of course, but that’s basically how it works. Plain text is marked up with tags that indicate where elements such as formatting, hyperlinks, and graphics should be applied, and a Web browser interprets those tags and displays the page in its formatted state. The trick, of course, is to know which tags to use, and where they’re appropriate, and what attributes they need. And that’s the subject of this book.
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