Over the past couple of decades, the academic community has made significant advances in developing educational materials and laboratory exercises for fundamental mechatronics and controls education. Students learn mathematical control theory, board-level electronics, interfacing, and microprocessors supplemented with educational laboratory equipment. As new mechanical and electrical engineering graduates become practicing engineers, many are engaged in projects where knowledge of industrial motion control technology is an absolute must since industrial automation is designed primarily around specialized motion control hardware and software. This book is an introduction to industrial motion control, which is a widely used technology found in every conceivable industry. It is the heart of just about any automated machinery and process.
Industrial Motion Control Motor Selection Drives Controller Tuning Applications By Hakan Gurocak
Industrial motion control applications use specialized equipment and require system design and integration where control is just one aspect. To design such systems, engineers need to be familiar with industrial motion control products; be able to bring together control theory, kinematics, dynamics, electronics, simulation, programming and machine design; apply interdisciplinary knowledge; and deal with practical application issues. Most of these topics are already covered in engineering courses in typical undergraduate curricula but in a compartmentalized nature, which makes it difficult to grasp the connections between them. As I wrote this book, my goal was to bring together theory, industrial machine design examples, industrial motion control products and practical guidelines. The context of studying industrial motion control systems naturally brought separately taught topics together and often crossed disciplinary lines.
The content came from my personal experience in developing and teaching mechatronics and automation courses, working with undergraduate students and from many discussions with engineers in the motion control industry. For example, even though many types of motors are available, I chose to concentrate on three-phase AC servo and induction motors based on input from the motion control industry. By no means this is a comprehensive book on any of the topics covered. It is not an in-depth examination of control theory, motor design, or power electronics. Rather, it is a balanced coverage of theory and practical concepts. Much of this material is available in manufacturer data sheets, manuals, product catalogs, fragments in various college courses, websites, trade magazines, and as know-how among practicing engineers. The book presents these pieces in a cohesive way to provide the fundamentals while supplementing them with solved examples based on practical applications.
The book starts with an introduction to the building blocks of a typical motion control system in Chapter 1. A block diagram is provided and the basic function of each building block is explained.
Chapter 2 examines how the motion profile is generated when an axis of a machine makes a move. After an overview of basic kinematics, two common motion profiles are explained. The chapter concludes with two approaches for multi axis coordination.
As the mechanical design of each axis and the overall machine are significant factors in achieving the desired motion, Chapter 3 focuses on drive-train design. Concepts of inertia reflection, torque reflection, and inertia ratio are introduced. Five types of transmission mechanisms are explored in depth. Torque–speed curves of motors, gearboxes, and motor selection procedures for different types of motors and axes with transmission mechanisms are provided.
Electric motors are by far the most commonly used actuators in industrial motion control. Chapter 4 begins with fundamental concepts such as electrical cycle, mechanical cycle, poles, and three-phase windings. Construction and operational details of AC servo and induction motors are provided. Torque generation performance of AC servo motors with sinusoidal and six-step commutation is compared. The chapter concludes with mathematical and simulation models for both types of motors.
Motion control systems employ an assortment of sensors and control components along with the motion controller. Chapter 5 starts with the presentation of various types of optical encoders for position measurement, limit switches, proximity sensors, photoelectric sensors, and ultrasonic sensors. Sinking or sourcing designations for sensor compatibility to I/O cards are explained. Next, control devices including push buttons, selector switches, and indicator lights are presented. The chapter concludes with an overview of motor starters, contactors, overload relays, soft-starters, and a three-wire motor control circuit.
A drive is the link between the motor and the controller. It amplifies small command signals generated by the controller to high-power voltage and current levels necessary to operate a motor. Chapter 6 begins by presenting the building blocks of drive electronics. The popular pulse width modulation (PWM) control technique is explained. Then, basic closed-loop control structures implemented in the drive are introduced. Single-loop PID position control and cascaded velocity and position loops with feed forward control are explored in depth. Mathematical and simulation models of the controllers are provided. Control algorithms use gains that must be tuned so that the servo system for each axis can follow its commanded trajectory as closely as possible. The chapter concludes by providing tuning procedures for the control algorithms presented earlier and includes practical ways to address integrator saturation.
The book concludes with Chapter 7, which is about programming and motion control applications. Linear, circular, and contour move modes of a motion controller are explored. The chapter continues by introducing algorithms for basic programmable logic controller (PLC) functionality that are commonly used in motion controller programs. The chapter concludes by reviewing how a motion controller can control a non-Cartesian machine, such as a robot, by computing its forward and inverse kinematics in real-time.
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