- Book Name: Electric Distribution Systems
- Pages: 576
- Size: 6 MB
Electric Distribution Systems PDf Free Download
The main consideration of distribution systems, as intermediate media between the subtransmission systems and the customer ’ s premises, is to maximize the utilization of electric energy to supply the end users with energy in a secure and efficient manner. Several circuits feed customers at different locations, in comparison to the transmission and subtransmission systems, which have only a few circuits. Distribution systems have to cater to a large variety of customers with significantly different demand patterns.
In addition, developments in sustainable and renewable generation (commonly referred to as distributed generation) application of a large class of power electronics – based devices demand response programs feasible for use with smart grid technologies, and so on have added new complexities in the planning, design, and operation of distribution systems. This has made the analysis of distribution systems rather complex. Due to the large variety of customers and demands, electric distribution systems cover a very broad spectrum of topics. The topics covered in this book are relevant from both the academic and practical aspect. They are of interest for electric utilities and industry as well as individuals working with distribution systems.
The operator or utility engineer who is interested in studying or working on distribution systems needs to know the topics addressed in this book and their practical implementation. Different aspects of system planning should be studied to define the system structure that feeds present and future demands. The protection system and switchgear based on short – circuit calculations and earthing systems must be designed. Power quality, system management, and automation as well as distributed generation are essential for the reader ’ s awareness since they play a prominent role in system operation. Various major topics are grouped together in this book in five parts.
Electric Distribution Systems PDf Free Download
PART I: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS The fundamental concepts of distribution systems are the subject of Chapter 1 . The duties of distribution engineers including the factors affecting the planning process are introduced here. It is aimed at identifying the key steps in planning. The layout of the distribution system for both small and big cities and examples of structures used in distribution systems at medium and low voltages are presented.
The primary function of the distribution system is to feed electric loads. Therefore, it is necessary to determine during the planning process not only the present load and its makeup but also the expected load growth in the near future. Definitions of load forecast terms and different methods of estimating the demand forecast are explained in Chapter 2 with application examples.
PART II: PROTECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SWITCHGEAR This part includes earthing, protection systems, and distribution switchgear. Earthing in distribution systems is an important subject that deserves to be studied, especially as the protection system is based on it. Various methods of earthing and a general description of the types of protection used in distribution systems are presented in Chapters 3 and 5 , respectively. The design of protection necessitates some explanation of short – circuit calculation methods, and these are presented in Chapter 4 . Automation and measuring equipment for distribution systems is installed in the switchgear (indoor or outdoor). Therefore, details about switchgear devices and the major factors affecting the design of switchboards are included in Chapter 6 .
PART III: POWER QUALITY It is not sufficient to just plan the distribution system to meet the load demand with minimum interruptions (number and duration). It is of crucial importance to emphasize the quality of supply, in particular, when feeding sensitive loads. Therefore, the key elements of power quality (voltage quality, power factor, and harmonics) and means of their improvement are explained in Chapters It is desirable to achieve a plan of a distribution system that takes into account the economics, that is, reducing the expenses and investments. How to verify these requirements is explained in Chapter 12 by applying demand – side management and energy – efficiency policies.
In addition, more attention should be given to the enhancement of distribution system performance. Methodologies applied to improve the performance of the distribution systems, such as distribution system automation and monitoring where automation helps to decrease the system interruptions, increase the reliability, and enhance the performance, are also discussed. Monitoring helps in timely decision making. The difference between the system automation and monitoring, using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, is illustrated with the aid of examples. SCADA definitions and components, architectures of SCADA systems, and the conditions of using various architectures are given in Chapter 13 . In addition, the smart grid vision is illustrated as a recent trend for the development of system automation and SCADA applications.
PART V: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION Electricity produced using local generation including small renewable sources with the goal of feeding local loads or as backup sources to feed critical loads in case of emergency and utility outage is often referred to as “ distributed generation ” in North American terms and “ embedded generation ” in European terms. Therefore, distributed generation produces electricity at or near the place where it is used to meet all or a part of the customers ’ power needs. It ranges in size from less than 1 kW to tens or, in some cases, hundreds of kilowatts. On the other hand, demand for electric energy continues to grow and a large investment is required to develop both the distribution and transmission systems accordingly. Thus, great attention is being paid to utilizing private and distributed energy sources to be able to meet the load demand. Different types of distributed energy sources and the benefits gained from interconnecting these sources with the distribution system are described in Chapter 14 .
Electric power distribution systems cover a broad spectrum of topics that need to be included in such a book. To keep the overall length of the book within a reasonable limit, many of these topics could not be covered in depth. Therefore, all material is supported by an extensive list of references where the interested reader can get more details for an in – depth study.
Electric distribution systems pdf free download.